#TheFutureIsYours Shaping Europe’s digital future
Regulation of incendiary speech on social networks
On Thursday, May 20 2021, at 5 pm, a round table ‘Regulation of inappropriate speech on social networks’ is held on the Zoom platform. The organization of the round table was encouraged by the research on legal regulation of expression on social networks carried out within the framework of the Central European Professors’ Network coordinated by the Ferenc Mádl Institute of Comparative Law.
Inappropriate speech on social media is not necessarily illegal and is subject to public, private and hybrid governance. The round table touches upon a multitude of questions that arise in a given context: How to draw the line between inappropriate and illegal hate speech? Where are the limits of freedom of expression? What are the triggers of hateful and inappropriate speech online? What are the peculiarities and challenges of inappropriate speech on Slovenian social networks? What are good practices regarding moderation of content on social networks? What can we expect from programs for automated detection of inappropriate speech in Slovenian language? What challenges regarding inappropriate speech on social networks remain open and how (should) law and society respond to them? These and other issues require multidisciplinary approaches, so the round table facilitates a discussion between legal, social and computer scholars. Short presentations by the guest speakers are followed by a moderated discussion open to questions from the audience.
You are cordially invited!
Čufar Kristina (Faculty of Law University of Ljubljana, member of the Central European Professors’ Network)
Vittoria Federici (Manager in the Content Policy team at Facebook): Facebook’s moderation of hate speech;
Kralj Novak Petra (Faculty of Law University of Ljubljana): Incendiary online speech through Slovenian case law
(Inštitut Jožef Štefan): Vpogled v nesprejemljiv govor na slovenskem Twitterju (Inappropriate speech on Slovenian Twitter);
Stajnko Jan (Faculty of Law University of Maribor): Illegal hate speech: criminal law perspective
(Pravna fakulteta UM): Sovražni govor: kazenskopravne perspective (Hate speech: Criminal law perspective);
Šulc Ajda (Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security University of Maribor): Triggers of online incendiary-hate speech
(Fakulteta za varnostne vede UM): Sprožilci sovražnega govora na spletu (Triggers of online hate speech);
Valentič Urška (Spletno oko): Spletno oko, a trusted flagger NGO
(Fakulteta za družbene vede UL): Spletno oko – del projekta center za varnejši internet
(Spletno oko – project Safer Internet Centre);
Each speaker is asked to prepare a 10 minute presentation to kick off the discussion. Presentations are followed by a moderated debate and questions from the audience. The event takes place in Slovenian and English. The event is recorded.
Event reportREPORT (Kristina Čufar, Faculty of Law University of Ljubljana) The round table organised by Kristina Čufar as a dissemination event related to the research carried out within the framework of the Central European Professors’ Network coordinated by the Ferenc Mádl Institute of Comparative Law ‘Regulacija neprimernega govora na družbenih omrežjih’ (Regulation of hate speech on social networks) took place on Thursday, May 20 2021, from 5PM to 7PM on Zoom. Some 30 participants were present at the event, and even more expressed his/her interest to watc the video demonstration. The round table relied onthe research of Kristina Čufar about content moderation of Slovenian-user generated content on Facebook and it brought together experts from diverse fields (law, sociology, computer science) as well as a private sector representative, providing an opportunity for a truly interdisciplinary debate. Each of the speakers held a 10-15 minute presentation in Slovenian (with the exception of the Facebook representative who spoke in English). The presentations were followed by a 30 minute Q&A session in English with questions from the audience and debate amongst the speakers. The round table examined the issue of inappropriate and hate speech on social media. Inappropriate speech on social networks is not necessarily illegal and is subject to public, private and hybrid regulation. The round table touched upon a multitude of questions that arise in a given context: How to draw the line between inappropriate and illegal hate speech? What are the triggers of hateful and inappropriate speech online? What are the peculiarities and challenges of inappropriate speech on Slovenian social networks in general and on Twitter in particular? What are good practices regarding content moderation on social networks? How does Facebook regulate hate speech on its platform? What appeal procedures are available on Facebook? These and other issues require a multidisciplinary approach as the round table demonstrated. Many of the questions were answered and others revealed the challenges of the intersections between public and private regulation, between legal and sociological concepts of what is considered appropriate, inappropriate or even hateful. Speakers and presentations in order of appearance: Stajnko Jan (Faculty of Law, University of Maribor): Hate speech: Criminal law perspective (“Sovražni govor: kazenskopravne perspective”) Jan Stajnko is a teaching assistant at the Department of Criminal Law at the Faculty of Law, University of Maribor and a doctoral student at the Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana. As an assistant at the Univesity Maribor, he teaches Criminal Substantive Law, Criminal Procedure Law and Media Law. Presentation: Some forms of hate speech can be a crime. Jan Stajnko focused primarily on paragraph 1 of Article 297A of the Slovenian Criminal Code (KZ-1) and its theoretical background. He also spoke about the Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA on combating certain forms and expressions of racism and xenophobia under criminal law and recent developments in EU substantive criminal law concerning the criminalization of hate speech. Vittoria Federci (Facebook): Facebook's approach to fighting online hate speech Vittoria Federici is a Manager in the Content Policy team at Facebook which is responsible for writing and interpreting global policies governing what users can share on Facebook. Presentation: Facebook's approach to fighting online hate speech: a) how policies are developed and enforced at Facebook; b) identifying and removing hate speech using a combination of human review and technology. Valentič Urška (Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana): Spletno oko – project Safer Internet Centre (“Spletno oko – del projekta center za varnejši internet”) Urška Valentič is the Head of Department for Research at Centre for Social Informatics (Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana). Presentation: The Spletno oko reporting point enables Slovenian Internet users to anonymously report hate speech and recordings of sexual abuse against children online. Spletno oko was established with the financial support of the Safer Internet program in September 2006, and Internet users were able to start reporting illegal content beginning with March 2007, when a technical platform was provided and website www.spletno-oko.si was set up and the cooperation with the police was established. The Spletno oko reporting point operates within the Center for Safer Internet, coordinated by the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences, in cooperation with ARNES partners, the Association of Friends of Youth of Slovenia and the MISSS Institute (Youth Information and Counseling Center of Slovenia). European Commission (through the Connecting Europe Facility) and the Ministry of Public Administration, Information Security Administration of the Republic of Slovenia. The mission of the Spletno oko reporting point, in cooperation with the police, internet service providers, web portals and other interested governmental and non-governmental organizations, is to reduce the dissemination of contents related to of child sexual abuse and hate speech online. Dr. Kralj Novak Petra (Jožef Štefan Institute): Inappropriate speech on Slovenian Twitter (“Vpogled v nesprejemljiv govor na slovenskem Twitterju”)) Dr. Petra Kralj Novak is a researcher at the Department of Knowledge Technologies of the Jožef Stefan Institute. She coordinates the European project IMSyPP: Innovative Monitoring Systems and Prevention Policies of Online Hate Speech (Innovative monitoring of hate speech online and guidelines for its prevention), which addresses the issues of hate speech in a multifaceted way. The European IMSyPP project is part of the European Social Justice Program. The Jožef Stefan Institute is developing machine learning models for Slovene, Italian, English and Dutch users, which will automatically mark comments that may contain hate speech. Presentation: In the first year of the IMSyPP project, the Institute developed a model that successfully distinguishes four types of Slovenian tweets, and classifies them as "indisputable", "indecent", "insult" and "violence", based on the three years’ practice of Slovenian "tweets". The results show a gradual increase in unacceptable speech on Twitter, from an initial share of 20% of posts in 2018 raising to 30% at the end of 2020. Unacceptable speech is mostly related to political topics (change of government) and ideological topics (left/right and related to migrants), and it chronologically coincides with the COVID-19 pandemic. The predominant type of unacceptable speech is insult, and only a very small portion represents violent hate speech. The analysis of informal communities on Slovenian Twitter, where the community is represented by users who retweet each other more intensively, shows very different patterns of unacceptable speech in individual communities. Šulc Ajda (Faculty of Security Sciences, University of Maribor): Triggers of online hate speech (“Sprožilci sovražnega govora na spletu”) Ajda Šulc is a teaching assistant in the field of sociology and social science methodology at the Faculty of Security Sciences, University of Maribor. In her work, she focuses on the topics of media construction of reality, intolerance, hateful content online, including peer violence and harassment, which is also the topic of her doctoral dissertation. Presentation at the round table discussed the reasons behind the accumulation of inappropriate speech and hate speech on certain media portals and under certain content. She underlined that only by understanding what enables and encourages users to have a markedly hostile discourse online, can we address and prevent this more effectively. Ajda presented her experience and some substantive findings from previous projects.
Report inappropriate content
Is this content inappropriate?